Barbarians. Celts

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    While many of them (especially the Nordic Europeans) were tall and broad-shouldered, many of them were lean and even gaunt; their skin pulled taut over muscles and bone from sheer hunger.

    Day-to-day survival was often the lot of these people.

    Wilderness and rural barbarians wore scant clothing, even in the winter, mainly because of need.

    Quite often, a barbarian would be barefoot all of his or her life, and may have only enough resources to fashion a pair of breeches or a fur wrap around their waist.

    Strangely enough, most of these people were remarkably long-lived; possibly from becoming desensitized to their harsh environment.

    In Germania, Tacitus notes that the Germans are a robust and hardy race, capable of enduring even the harshest of climates: "to cold and hunger their climate and their soil inure them," although he notes that they are susceptible to extremes of heat and to thirst.

    The nomadic Goths were a remarkable peaceful people; moving from location to location ever in search of a better home. Eventually, some of these settled in Byzentium and became known as Ostrogoths. Having little or no recorded history or culture, they would adapt the culture of the people in whose lands they settled.

    Thus, it was not uncommon to find polygamy and same-sex relationships among the Ostrogoths; these being accepted among the Greeks and Byzantines. The other Goths, who came to be known as the Visigoths, were more warlike in their nature and retained a sense of their original Scandinavian culture and heritage.



    GODS AND GODDESSES

    The belief system of the many of the barbarian peoples were elaborate. In ancient times, they were polytheistic, worshipping a common pantheon of Gods and Goddesses within their respective cultures.

    The Germans and Norse worshipped what we now know as the Norse/Germanic pantheon of Deities.


    Odin

    Odin (or, depending upon the dialect Woden or Wotan) was the Father of all creation.

    ODIN (Woden to the Anglo-Saxons) is a god of the mysterious realms of wisdom, cunning, sorcery, and death. Subtle, aristocratic, and at times inexplicable, Odin is the literal father of important gods, such as Thor, and All-Father to the whole of creation, divine and human. Amongst his gifts to us, his children, was the greatest of all: the gift of writing.

    To accomplish this Odin hung himself upside down upon the World Tree, the gigantic ash Yggdrasil ( a compound meaning "terrible horse"). After nine days of fasting and agony, in which "he made of himself a sacrifice to himself", he "fell screaming" from the tree, having had revealed to him in a flash of insight the secret of the runes. Their initial manifestation took the form of eighteen powerful charms for protection, increase, success in battle and love-making, healing, and mastery over natural causes.


    Thor

    Thor (Thunar, Donnar), also known as the Thunderer, was considered to be a son of Odin by some, but among many tribes actually supplanted Odin as the favorite god.


    Frigga

    Frigga (Frigg, Fricka), Odin's wife, was considered to be the Mother of all; and protectoress of children. The goddess of the dead and the afterlife was Hel, (Holle, Hulda), and was portrayed by the Vikings as being half-dead, half alive herself. The Vikings viewed her with considerable trepidation. The Frisian, Gallic, and German barbarians viewed her with some beneficence, more of a gentler form of death and transformation. The Christian term "Hell" derives from her name.


    Frey (Ing) and Freya (the Frowe) were not of Odin's line (a.k.a. the Aesir), but of another line known as the Vanir. After a War between the Aesir and Vanir, which finally ended peaceably, Frey and Freya went to Asgard (the home of the Aesir) to live. Freya is considered to be the goddess of Love and Beauty, such as the greek Aphrodite, but is also a warrior goddess and one of great wisdom, such as the greek Pallas Athene.





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    QUICK LINKS:

    Easter Island:
    Eastern Island - Myth

    Maya:
    Mayan religion - Popol Vuh

    Celts:
    Barbarians
    Wicca - Paganism
    Celtic civilization
    Celts, another overview
    Celtic Knotwork: celtic knots
    The Voyage of Bran, Son of Febal