Formations like the spider and the monkey
could show star constellations like Orion and Ursa Mayor.
The big problem of all astronomical theories is the unknowing of the age. The
direction of stars is changing within centuries because the phenomena of precession of the
Reiche led a determined effort to discredit theories of extraterrestrial
visitors. The strategy of this attack has been to argue that the Nazca Indians
constructed the Lines relatively recently - some time between 300 BC and AD 800.
In support of this possibility, some scientists have put forward ingenious
ideas on how the geoglyphs could theoretically have been designed from the
ground. The more important evidence, however, is that which attempts to link the
Lines definitively to the Nazcan culture. Here, neither of the two key pieces of
evidence survive close scrutiny.
The first piece of evidence is a series of radiocarbon dates, based on
ceramic and wood remains which were left at the Lines by the Nazcan people. It
is claimed that this proves that the Nazcans constructed the Lines. On the
contrary, the dating of these materials tells us only that the Nazcans lived in
the area of the Nazca Lines. Since the Lines themselves cannot be radiocarbon
dated, the possibility remains that they already existed when the Nazcan culture
The second piece of evidence is the alleged resemblance of the Nazca
geoglyphs to certain features found on Nazcan pottery. This is an important
issue because it potentially offers proof that the Nazcans had either designed
the images or at least viewed them from the air.
Maria Reiche, the German mathematician and archaeologist most famous for her
research into the enigmatic figures of Nazca, died in 1998 at the age of 95. She
is buried in the arid valley she loved so well.
Professor Gerald Hawkins and his group went to Nazca to prove the
astronomical Theory of Maria Reiche but was unsuccessful. In 1968, a study by
the National Geographic Society determined that, while some of the Nazca lines
did point to the positions of the Sun, Moon and certain stars two thousand years
ago, it was no more than could be expected by mere chance. In 1973, Dr Gerald
Hawkins studied 186 lines with a computer programme and found that only 20 per
cent had any astronomical orientation - again no more than by pure chance.
In 1982, Anthony Aveni obtained similar results.
Georg Petersen - 1980 - pointed out that Reiche's theory did not explain the
different lengths and widths of the lines. More recently, Johan Reinhard has
noted that the surrounding mountains provided a ready-made and much more
effective mechanism for the Nazcans to use as a solar calendar; the lines would
thus have been quite superfluous to them. In addition to this avalanche of
scientific opinion, we should also note that Reiche, like von Daniken, has
failed to explain the significance of the animal geoglyphs.
Simone Waisbard -
- The drawing of Nazca are a
giant astronomical calendar. Further the Nazca-line-system was used to measure
the precipitation value. Figures, especially seabirds, have a connection to the
meteorological prophecy system of the Nazca-Culture. Her ideas for the trapezoid
formations: places for holy animals before sacrifice them, or field claims
connected with filter galleries, observatories or places for ritual ceremonies
of the different clans.
Erich von D niken - Long time ago visitors from other stars visited the
Earth. They landed at Nazca. During the landing stones was blown away by the
power of rocket propulsion. By approaching more the power was increasing and the
cleaned band broader. In this way the first trapezes emerged. Later the Aliens
disappeared and left confused people. Like in the modern cargo cults they tried
to call the Gods back by drawing lines, figures and trapezes. He discovered the
GGF/Mandala/Zodiac and the mirror - Formation and compares them with modern
VASIS or PAPI-Signs.
Alan F. Alford - Negroid Slaves - the Nazca-Lines was made by Negroid Slaves
of the Tihuanaco Culture. After a revolution the Negroid population destroyed
some figure, this is the explanation for overdrawn zigzag-formations. Later this
people went in northern direction and founded Chavin and the Olmec culture.
Robert Bast -
A memory of the Deluge - The animal, plant and
human-shaped figures are lying together on the ground. So it could be a memorial
place of the big flood. Many cultures of our world know deluge-myths, you can
find a couple of them at his Side.
Gilbert de Jong -
A Nazcan Zodiac was himself in Nazca and measured
the GGF by GPS. He obtained a length of the square side of about 54,7 Meter. In
the formation he recognized a Zodiac.
Nazca Figurine depicting Solar
It all comes back to the Sun - Eye (Ra) -
Light at a time of
transition of consciousness
Robin Edgar -the Nazca-Figures were inspired by, and intended to be seen by,
the (so-called) Eye of God that is manifested during total solar eclipses. An
extraordinary series of solar eclipses coincided with the construction of the
Nasca lines. Some Lines are aligned with the winter solstice, a less spectacular
but more regular, death and rebirth of the Sun God.
Nazca Lines and
the Eye in the Sky Eclipse
Michael Coe - Ceremonial Places - believes the Nazca Lines are sacred paths
to walk by specific rites. But primary the lines was a offering for
elders,heaven- and mountain-deities who spent water for fields.
Siegfried Waxmann recognized a culture atlas of the human history in the
Archaeologist Frederico Kauffmann-Doig - the Nazca Lines are magic lines
which origin from the cat cult in Chavin de Huantar.
Georg A. von Breunig believes the Nazca Lines were used for sprinting to
honor especial gods or ritual competitions. This theory was supported by the
professor Hoimar von Ditfurth.
Markus Reindel - Dowsing - The Nazca-Figures are markers for subterranean
waterflow. Trapezoides show the broadness of the waterstream, zigzaglines show
where they end, lines show into direction of the puquitos.