In the central and southern Andes, for
example, the Chupachos of Hu nuco numbered some 10,000, while the Lupacas on the
west bank of Lake Titicaca comprised over 100,000.
The refined Chimu culture (700 AD) crafted gold and other metals into relics
and built the mud-brick citadel of Chan Chan, near the northern coastal city of
The Chachapoyas culture (800 AD) made the best possible use of arable land
and built their constructions on top of the highest mountains in the northern
cloud forest. The vast Kuelap fortress is a fine example of how they adapted to